Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau (KWNC), formerly known as Kiang Wu Nursing and Midwifery School, is a subsidiary of Kiang Wu Hospital Charitable Association (KWHCA) founded in 1923. Recognized to be assiduous, highly-motivated and accountable, nurses nurtured by KWNC have been highly commended by health care institutions of Macao and beyond.
On account of the increasing number of inpatients and nursing workload prompted by the establishment of Kiang Wu Hospital’s in-patient department in 1919, the proposal of founding a nursing school was brought forward. At the beginning of founding, the School was named “Kiang Wu Senior Nursing School” where eight doctors from Kiang Wu Hospital were invited to serve as volunteer teachers. The School designed its curriculum according to the stipulation of the Chinese Nurses Society, and gave separate lectures for different subjects. The first batch of nursing students, seven of them, graduated in 1926.
1. Health Care Development Triggered by Sino-Japanese War
Following the Lugou Bridge Incident in 1937, Hong Kong was defeated and refugees from various places flocked to Macao, leading to the city’s health care development and urgent demand for nursing talents. At that time, with the visionary management and contributions of a number of school principals and leaders including Dr. Huang Yaojian, Dr. Ke Lin and Ms. Lin Liujian, a solid foundation of the School was laid. In an effort to align with the health care system of the Chinese Mainland, the School formulated its curriculum according to the stipulation set out by the Chinese Nurses Society, and was renamed “Kiang Wu Private Senior Nursing Occupational School” in 1945 for the implementation of more rigorous student management and training.
In 1948, midwifery subjects to be completed in one year’s time were included in the nursing programme, and the duration of nursing subjects was shortened from the original three years and nine months to three years. The School was also renamed “Kiang Wu Private Senior Nursing and Midwifery Occupational School”.
In 1951, to address social needs, the School gradually shortened the study duration of current students across different years of study, and the School was further renamed “Kiang Wu Private Nursing and Midwifery School”.
In 1954, with the development of Kiang Wu Hospital and the escalating demand for high quality and quantity nursing services, the duration of nursing and midwifery subjects was lengthened to three years and one year respectively. The entire nursing and midwifery programme lasted for four years, and the key focus of the fourth year of study was on obstetrics and ward practice.
Owing to the ongoing expansion of various Hospital departments and the Nursing School, the existing campus and dormitory were filled to capacity. Fortunately, President of KWHCA Mr. Ho Yin and businessman from Hong Kong Mr. Ho Tim contributed funds for the construction of “Cheng-Kai Memorial Hall” in commemoration of their deceased father Mr. Ho Cheng Kai. The Hall, inaugurated in April 1956, served as the new school building and student dormitory, with which students were provided with a more favourable learning environment and the nursing training could be more centralized and better managed.
2. Formulation of Nursing and Midwifery School Temporary Regulations
In 1957, the School reviewed its school-running experience accumulated over the past three decades and formulated the “Nursing and Midwifery School Temporary Regulations” to govern the schooling system, curriculum, teaching schedule, rules and regulations of clinical study, campus life, rewards and punishments, etc. The School made an effort to strengthen the education and management of students and laid emphasis on the nurture of student virtue by arranging home visits and appointing head of discipline and class instructors. The teaching policy of “integration of listening, observation and practice” was also introduced, through which students were guided to be patient-centred, humiliate and diligent. With the implementation of the above measures, there was an obvious improvement on students’ nursing proficiency and service attitude. All graduates from the School, no matter serving at Kiang Wu Hospital or other local or non-local health care institutions, were well applauded for their high level of professional competence.
In 1969, the schooling system was once adjusted to three years with the aim to recruit more students. After several years of implementation, the system was resumed to four years in 1973 to meet actual needs.
3. Expansion of School Building
Given that the space of the original three-storey school building was inadequate to cope with the rapidly growing number of nurses and students, the School decided to expand its building to four storeys and perform a large-scale renovation in 1971.
4. Continuous Improvement on School Facilities
During the decade between 1976 and 1985, the School was under large transformation in terms of campus facilities. For instance, fans were installed in the dormitory, resting room for students on overnight shift was newly added, and the wooden-partitioned classrooms were turned into solid brick-built classrooms. The classroom equipment was also renewed to enhance the quality of teaching and learning. In addition, physical education classes were held to facilitate students’ all-round moral, intellectual and physical development. Alongside technological development and the growing popularization of electronic teaching, the School purchased a number of teaching equipment including slide projectors, movie players, projectors and video recorders as well as an array of teaching videos. With the advanced equipment made available, teachers were able to produce video clips and filmstrips on nursing skills by themselves. The vivid teaching aids did not only attract students’ attention, but also promoted their understanding of the learning materials.
In 1985, the student dormitory underwent a large-scale renovation. At that time, in order to facilitate a better management, the School developed a set of dormitory regulations and recruited wardens to monitor the dormitory. In addition, the duration of lecture and clinical study was shortened to eight hours per day to give students more time for self studying. Considering the fact that the demand for nurses was much greater than that for midwives, the Recruitment and Admission Committee of the School approved the proposal of dividing the original four-year nursing and midwifery programme into three-year nursing and one-year midwifery programmes in 1985. Graduates of the nursing programme would enrol on the midwifery programme based on the School’s selection or on a voluntary basis. This arrangement allowed most students to enter the workforce right after graduation without taking the additional year of midwifery studies. The relevant programme design and clinical study arrangement were modified accordingly.
On 5 September 1989, Kiang Wu Nursing and Midwifery School gained recognition as an educational institution from the Macao Government. In the second half of the year, the School adjusted the lecture and clinical study hours of Year 1 students to facilitate the better integration of theories and practice as well as the manpower allocation of the Hospital. Moreover, in an effort to promote safety and improve the campus environment, the resting room for students on overnight shift, classrooms for clinical study and the office of Teaching Division were installed with air conditioners. Furthermore, the living allowance granted to students increased substantially.
5. Admission Requirement Elevated to Senior Secondary Graduation
To align with the health care and nursing development of the local society and enable nursing graduates to pursue bachelor’s education in the future, the admission application has been made available only to candidates with senior secondary graduation since 1991. Moreover, to meet the requirements of the Government, the schooling system was adjusted to three years (not offering midwifery subjects) in 1992. In an attempt to popularize nursing knowledge among Macao citizens, the School launched the one year “Training Course on Fundamental Nursing Knowledge” for the first time in 1993. Since the course was practical and the classes were scheduled at non-working hours, it was well received by the participants.
At the beginning of 1990s, the School focused on the strengthening of three aspects, namely (1) enhancement of nursing quality; (2) emphasis on students’ moral education; and (3) improvement on students’ learning and living environment.
Starting from 1993, with the aim to popularize nursing knowledge, the School has established a number of courses including the one-year “Fundamental Health Care Certificate Course”, “Certificate Course on Gerontological Nursing”, “Course for Health Assistants” and “Course on Infant Nursing”. The School also put enormous effort into the enhancement of academic staff and the attainment of resources, striving to provide favourable learning environment for young people interested in the nursing profession and others from all walks of life wishing to acquire nursing knowledge. In addition, the School is dedicated to fostering high-calibre nursing professionals for Macao, enhancing all citizens’ health care knowledge, caring for and benefiting the local communities.
6. Nursing Education Promoted to Higher Education Level
In early 1994, qualifications of students from Kiang Wu Nursing and Midwifery School were legally recognized by the Government as equivalent to those obtained by students graduating from public schools of the similar kind. In 1990s, the Macao Government was determined to promote nursing education to higher education level. To act in line with the Government’s initiative, KWHCA conducted in-depth discussions and extensive consultations on the issue. After taking into thorough considerations the School’s history and a number of factors, it was decided that the School would be promoted to a higher education institution, by means of the financial support from the Government and the technical support from the local society, Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland.
In the process of promotion, the School received fervent support and assistance from the Macao Government, education sector, health care sector and people from all walks of life, as well as KWHCA and Kiang Wu Hospital. Nursing experts and peers from neighbouring regions were also eager to offer help and support.
On 6 June 1997, a Consultation Agreement was signed between the School and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, under which the School formulated the curriculum of its Higher Diploma in Nursing Programme under the guidance of the University. After the curriculum had been developed, the School invited an international panel, composed of nursing experts and professors from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and Taiwan, to conduct a validation for the Programme within the College in early December 1997. With the approval from the panel experts, the Higher Diploma in Nursing Programme was officially launched in September 1998.
7. Establishment of Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau
“Kiang Wu Nursing and Midwifery School” was officially promoted and renamed “Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau” under Ordinance No. 418/99M promulgated by the Macao Government on 5 November 1999, from when the College makes strides towards a new height of nursing education.
8. Co-establishment of Bachelor’s Programme with Peking Union Medical College
Kiang Wu Nursing and Midwifery School (KWNMS) entered into collaboration with the School of Nursing of Peking Union Medical College for the nurture of students and academic staff. The two institutions signed the “Directional Student Nurturing Agreement” on 29 April 1998, under which in each year KWNMS could select and send two to four outstanding graduates to further their studies by enrolling on the third and fourth year of the undergraduate programme of the School of Nursing of Peking Union Medical College. Upon completion of the two-year studies and fulfilment of the graduation requirements, the students would be conferred bachelor’s degree in nursing. In addition to the nurture of students, Peking Union Medical College also agreed to nurture the academic staff of KWNMS and the tuition fees were subsidized by the warm-hearted people of Macao. In 1999, KWNMS co-established the two-year “In-Service Bachelor of Science in Nursing Programme”, the first of its kind in Macao, with Peking Union Medical College. A total of 60 students were admitted upon the initial establishment of the Programme and the first batch of students graduated on 21 July 2001. The Programme fostered three sessions of graduates at a number of 126 who all play important roles at various health care institutions in Macao.
9. Establishment of Higher Diploma in Nursing (Supplementary) Programme
After the return of Macao’s sovereignty to the Motherland, Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau launched the “Higher Diploma in Nursing (Supplementary) Programme” in February 2001 with the support of the Macao SAR Government, aiming at providing continuing education opportunity for in-service nurses. The Programme offered compulsory subjects and electives which allowed students to select the subjects according to their time available. There were 183 students admitted to the Programme and 168 graduated.
10. Campus Expansion
In response to the development needs of the College, KWNC underwent a campus enlargement in August 2001. The newly furnished building was enlarged from the former 24,000 ft2 to 42,000 ft2 where advanced teaching aids and equipment were installed, classrooms, lecture theatres, laboratories, library and recreational area were expanded and renovated, offering students a more spacious and comfortable learning environment.
11. Establishment of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Programme(BSN)
In view of social development and growing demand for high-quality nursing services, the establishment of bachelor’s degree programme in nursing becomes increasingly necessary. In September 2002, KWNC was authorized the founding of its four-year “Bachelor of Science in Nursing Programme” by the Macao Government.
12. Validation for Bachelor’s Degree Programme
In December 2002, KWNC invited a panel of nursing education experts from the United Kingdom, the United States, Brazil and Hong Kong to come over to the College for a validation for its Bachelor of Science in Nursing Programme. The College obtained invaluable advice from the validation panel and made relevant improvement to the Programme. Moreover, with academic staff’s cumulative teaching experience, continuous improvement was made to the programme design and teaching methods. Subsequent to the validation held earlier, in pursuit of marching towards international standards, KWNC conducted another validation, namely a mid-stage validation, in 2009 and obtained full approval from the validation experts.
13. Graduation of First Batch of Bachelor’s Students
After four years of striving effort of academic staff and students, the first batch of students of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing Programme graduated in July 2005, marking an important milestone of the College’s development.
14. Establishment of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (Supplementary) Programme(BSNS)
According to a survey conducted in 2003, 49.1% of in-service nurses in Macao would like to engage in advanced learning at bachelor’s level or above. This proved nursing practitioners’ strong awareness of self enhancement and lifelong learning. In view of this, KWNC established the two-year “Bachelor of Science in Nursing (Supplementary) Programme” in February 2005 and received positive feedback.
15. Establishment of Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced Nursing Programme(PDAN)
In response to Macao’s health care development and the demand for high-calibre nursing talents, KWNC co-established the two-year “Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced Nursing Programme” with the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong in September 2008. The establishment of the Programme signifies the enhancement of the College’s education level – from undergraduate to postgraduate. Students who have completed the Programme would be awarded Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced Nursing by KWNC and the Specialty Nursing Certificate by the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong.
16. Establishment of Master of Nursing Science Programme(MNS)
With the assistance and approval from the Ministry of Education of China, the Liaison Office of the Central People’s Government in Macao SAR and the Macao SAR Government, as well as the support and trust of Sun Yat-sen University, KWNC co-established the three-year “Master of Nursing Science Programme” in Macao with Sun Yat-sen University in 2010. The establishment of the Programme brings forth another new height of the College’s nursing education. Students who have completed the Programme would be awarded Master of Nursing Science by Sun Yat-sen University. KWNC is responsible for the Programme’s teaching management and four of its academic staff are appointed by Sun Yat-sen University as co-supervisors to undertake part of the teaching of the Programme and provide research counselling for students.
17. Founding of Nursing & Health Education Research Centre
In the view of strengthening the College’s integration of teaching, researches and social services as well as acting in line with the key policies of the SAR Government in the context of an increasingly ageing society, KWNC began making preparations for the establishment of the Nursing & Health Education Research Centre (NHC) in 2006, and has launched a series of research and education projects after the inauguration of the Centre in September 2012.
The “Benevolence Lights up my Later Life: A Tailored Meta-programme to Face with Ageing Population in Macau”, launched under NHC in April 2011, has been making positive achievements since its initiation. The Programme, incorporating a comprehensive education system accomplished by cross-disciplinary, cross-professional and cross-functional collaboration, gains support from the Secretary for Social Affairs and Culture of the Macao SAR Government, subsidization from Health Bureau and Social Welfare Bureau of the Macao SAR Government, as well as professional guidance from the Nethersole School of Nursing of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Alzheimer’s Disease Association and the University of New South Wales of Australia. Cooperation agreements have also been signed with local community associations including Macao Federation of Trade Unions, General Union of Neighbourhood Associations of Macau and Macau Caritas. The Programme lays its primary emphasis on dementia, and on account of its effort, the prevention and control of dementia was positioned as a prioritized policy in the Policy Address 2013 of the Macao SAR Government. Incumbent Chief Executive Dr. Fernando Chui Sai On also highlighted the prevention and control of dementia in his election platform in 2014.
18. Establishment of Nursing Preceptor Training Committee
KWNC and the School of Health Sciences of Macao Polytechnic Institute initiated to develop a means of promoting the quality of clinical teaching and establish a system to regulate the practice of clinical teaching. The two schools worked with nursing leaders from local health care institutions to form the 12-member Nursing Preceptor Training Committee in April 2007. The participating institutions include Conde de São Januário Central Hospital, Kiang Wu Hospital, University Hospital of Macau University of Science and Technology and Health Centres of the Macao Government. With the aim to foster qualified nursing preceptors who are well-equipped with both theoretical knowledge and practical skills, the Committee organizes the “Nursing Preceptor Training Course” and “Nursing Preceptor Advanced Training Course”. Students who have completed the “Nursing Preceptor Training Course” would be awarded the title of “Nursing Preceptor” by the Committee and be listed in the register of nursing preceptors.
Looking ahead, it is with great anticipation that KWNC will go from strength to strength alongside the inauguration of its new campus as which would provide enhanced campus infrastructure and facilitate the nurture of a greater number of nursing professionals. Meanwhile, the College will persist in its programme quality assurance and make consistent advancement on the academic front, and be committed to establishing more nursing-related programmes and courses, reinforcing the integration of teaching, researches and social services, in addition to fostering more high-calibre health care talents, in pursuit of making continuous contribution to the elevation of Macao’s professional nursing standards.